RadioHead
RH_RF95.h
1 // RH_RF95.h
2 //
3 // Definitions for HopeRF LoRa radios per:
4 // http://www.hoperf.com/upload/rf/RFM95_96_97_98W.pdf
5 // http://www.hoperf.cn/upload/rfchip/RF96_97_98.pdf
6 //
7 // Author: Mike McCauley (mikem@airspayce.com)
8 // Copyright (C) 2014 Mike McCauley
9 // $Id: RH_RF95.h,v 1.19 2017/07/25 05:26:50 mikem Exp mikem $
10 //
11 
12 #ifndef RH_RF95_h
13 #define RH_RF95_h
14 
15 #include <RHSPIDriver.h>
16 
17 // This is the maximum number of interrupts the driver can support
18 // Most Arduinos can handle 2, Megas can handle more
19 #define RH_RF95_NUM_INTERRUPTS 3
20 
21 // Max number of octets the LORA Rx/Tx FIFO can hold
22 #define RH_RF95_FIFO_SIZE 255
23 
24 // This is the maximum number of bytes that can be carried by the LORA.
25 // We use some for headers, keeping fewer for RadioHead messages
26 #define RH_RF95_MAX_PAYLOAD_LEN RH_RF95_FIFO_SIZE
27 
28 // The length of the headers we add.
29 // The headers are inside the LORA's payload
30 #define RH_RF95_HEADER_LEN 4
31 
32 // This is the maximum message length that can be supported by this driver.
33 // Can be pre-defined to a smaller size (to save SRAM) prior to including this header
34 // Here we allow for 1 byte message length, 4 bytes headers, user data and 2 bytes of FCS
35 #ifndef RH_RF95_MAX_MESSAGE_LEN
36  #define RH_RF95_MAX_MESSAGE_LEN (RH_RF95_MAX_PAYLOAD_LEN - RH_RF95_HEADER_LEN)
37 #endif
38 
39 // The crystal oscillator frequency of the module
40 #define RH_RF95_FXOSC 32000000.0
41 
42 // The Frequency Synthesizer step = RH_RF95_FXOSC / 2^^19
43 #define RH_RF95_FSTEP (RH_RF95_FXOSC / 524288)
44 
45 
46 // Register names (LoRa Mode, from table 85)
47 #define RH_RF95_REG_00_FIFO 0x00
48 #define RH_RF95_REG_01_OP_MODE 0x01
49 #define RH_RF95_REG_02_RESERVED 0x02
50 #define RH_RF95_REG_03_RESERVED 0x03
51 #define RH_RF95_REG_04_RESERVED 0x04
52 #define RH_RF95_REG_05_RESERVED 0x05
53 #define RH_RF95_REG_06_FRF_MSB 0x06
54 #define RH_RF95_REG_07_FRF_MID 0x07
55 #define RH_RF95_REG_08_FRF_LSB 0x08
56 #define RH_RF95_REG_09_PA_CONFIG 0x09
57 #define RH_RF95_REG_0A_PA_RAMP 0x0a
58 #define RH_RF95_REG_0B_OCP 0x0b
59 #define RH_RF95_REG_0C_LNA 0x0c
60 #define RH_RF95_REG_0D_FIFO_ADDR_PTR 0x0d
61 #define RH_RF95_REG_0E_FIFO_TX_BASE_ADDR 0x0e
62 #define RH_RF95_REG_0F_FIFO_RX_BASE_ADDR 0x0f
63 #define RH_RF95_REG_10_FIFO_RX_CURRENT_ADDR 0x10
64 #define RH_RF95_REG_11_IRQ_FLAGS_MASK 0x11
65 #define RH_RF95_REG_12_IRQ_FLAGS 0x12
66 #define RH_RF95_REG_13_RX_NB_BYTES 0x13
67 #define RH_RF95_REG_14_RX_HEADER_CNT_VALUE_MSB 0x14
68 #define RH_RF95_REG_15_RX_HEADER_CNT_VALUE_LSB 0x15
69 #define RH_RF95_REG_16_RX_PACKET_CNT_VALUE_MSB 0x16
70 #define RH_RF95_REG_17_RX_PACKET_CNT_VALUE_LSB 0x17
71 #define RH_RF95_REG_18_MODEM_STAT 0x18
72 #define RH_RF95_REG_19_PKT_SNR_VALUE 0x19
73 #define RH_RF95_REG_1A_PKT_RSSI_VALUE 0x1a
74 #define RH_RF95_REG_1B_RSSI_VALUE 0x1b
75 #define RH_RF95_REG_1C_HOP_CHANNEL 0x1c
76 #define RH_RF95_REG_1D_MODEM_CONFIG1 0x1d
77 #define RH_RF95_REG_1E_MODEM_CONFIG2 0x1e
78 #define RH_RF95_REG_1F_SYMB_TIMEOUT_LSB 0x1f
79 #define RH_RF95_REG_20_PREAMBLE_MSB 0x20
80 #define RH_RF95_REG_21_PREAMBLE_LSB 0x21
81 #define RH_RF95_REG_22_PAYLOAD_LENGTH 0x22
82 #define RH_RF95_REG_23_MAX_PAYLOAD_LENGTH 0x23
83 #define RH_RF95_REG_24_HOP_PERIOD 0x24
84 #define RH_RF95_REG_25_FIFO_RX_BYTE_ADDR 0x25
85 #define RH_RF95_REG_26_MODEM_CONFIG3 0x26
86 
87 #define RH_RF95_REG_27_PPM_CORRECTION 0x27
88 #define RH_RF95_REG_28_FEI_MSB 0x28
89 #define RH_RF95_REG_29_FEI_MID 0x29
90 #define RH_RF95_REG_2A_FEI_LSB 0x2a
91 #define RH_RF95_REG_2C_RSSI_WIDEBAND 0x2c
92 #define RH_RF95_REG_31_DETECT_OPTIMIZ 0x31
93 #define RH_RF95_REG_33_INVERT_IQ 0x33
94 #define RH_RF95_REG_37_DETECTION_THRESHOLD 0x37
95 #define RH_RF95_REG_39_SYNC_WORD 0x39
96 
97 #define RH_RF95_REG_40_DIO_MAPPING1 0x40
98 #define RH_RF95_REG_41_DIO_MAPPING2 0x41
99 #define RH_RF95_REG_42_VERSION 0x42
100 
101 #define RH_RF95_REG_4B_TCXO 0x4b
102 #define RH_RF95_REG_4D_PA_DAC 0x4d
103 #define RH_RF95_REG_5B_FORMER_TEMP 0x5b
104 #define RH_RF95_REG_61_AGC_REF 0x61
105 #define RH_RF95_REG_62_AGC_THRESH1 0x62
106 #define RH_RF95_REG_63_AGC_THRESH2 0x63
107 #define RH_RF95_REG_64_AGC_THRESH3 0x64
108 
109 // RH_RF95_REG_01_OP_MODE 0x01
110 #define RH_RF95_LONG_RANGE_MODE 0x80
111 #define RH_RF95_ACCESS_SHARED_REG 0x40
112 #define RH_RF95_LOW_FREQUENCY_MODE 0x08
113 #define RH_RF95_MODE 0x07
114 #define RH_RF95_MODE_SLEEP 0x00
115 #define RH_RF95_MODE_STDBY 0x01
116 #define RH_RF95_MODE_FSTX 0x02
117 #define RH_RF95_MODE_TX 0x03
118 #define RH_RF95_MODE_FSRX 0x04
119 #define RH_RF95_MODE_RXCONTINUOUS 0x05
120 #define RH_RF95_MODE_RXSINGLE 0x06
121 #define RH_RF95_MODE_CAD 0x07
122 
123 // RH_RF95_REG_09_PA_CONFIG 0x09
124 #define RH_RF95_PA_SELECT 0x80
125 #define RH_RF95_MAX_POWER 0x70
126 #define RH_RF95_OUTPUT_POWER 0x0f
127 
128 // RH_RF95_REG_0A_PA_RAMP 0x0a
129 #define RH_RF95_LOW_PN_TX_PLL_OFF 0x10
130 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP 0x0f
131 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_3_4MS 0x00
132 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_2MS 0x01
133 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_1MS 0x02
134 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_500US 0x03
135 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_250US 0x0
136 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_125US 0x05
137 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_100US 0x06
138 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_62US 0x07
139 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_50US 0x08
140 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_40US 0x09
141 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_31US 0x0a
142 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_25US 0x0b
143 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_20US 0x0c
144 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_15US 0x0d
145 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_12US 0x0e
146 #define RH_RF95_PA_RAMP_10US 0x0f
147 
148 // RH_RF95_REG_0B_OCP 0x0b
149 #define RH_RF95_OCP_ON 0x20
150 #define RH_RF95_OCP_TRIM 0x1f
151 
152 // RH_RF95_REG_0C_LNA 0x0c
153 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN 0xe0
154 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G1 0x20
155 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G2 0x40
156 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G3 0x60
157 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G4 0x80
158 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G5 0xa0
159 #define RH_RF95_LNA_GAIN_G6 0xc0
160 #define RH_RF95_LNA_BOOST_LF 0x18
161 #define RH_RF95_LNA_BOOST_LF_DEFAULT 0x00
162 #define RH_RF95_LNA_BOOST_HF 0x03
163 #define RH_RF95_LNA_BOOST_HF_DEFAULT 0x00
164 #define RH_RF95_LNA_BOOST_HF_150PC 0x11
165 
166 // RH_RF95_REG_11_IRQ_FLAGS_MASK 0x11
167 #define RH_RF95_RX_TIMEOUT_MASK 0x80
168 #define RH_RF95_RX_DONE_MASK 0x40
169 #define RH_RF95_PAYLOAD_CRC_ERROR_MASK 0x20
170 #define RH_RF95_VALID_HEADER_MASK 0x10
171 #define RH_RF95_TX_DONE_MASK 0x08
172 #define RH_RF95_CAD_DONE_MASK 0x04
173 #define RH_RF95_FHSS_CHANGE_CHANNEL_MASK 0x02
174 #define RH_RF95_CAD_DETECTED_MASK 0x01
175 
176 // RH_RF95_REG_12_IRQ_FLAGS 0x12
177 #define RH_RF95_RX_TIMEOUT 0x80
178 #define RH_RF95_RX_DONE 0x40
179 #define RH_RF95_PAYLOAD_CRC_ERROR 0x20
180 #define RH_RF95_VALID_HEADER 0x10
181 #define RH_RF95_TX_DONE 0x08
182 #define RH_RF95_CAD_DONE 0x04
183 #define RH_RF95_FHSS_CHANGE_CHANNEL 0x02
184 #define RH_RF95_CAD_DETECTED 0x01
185 
186 // RH_RF95_REG_18_MODEM_STAT 0x18
187 #define RH_RF95_RX_CODING_RATE 0xe0
188 #define RH_RF95_MODEM_STATUS_CLEAR 0x10
189 #define RH_RF95_MODEM_STATUS_HEADER_INFO_VALID 0x08
190 #define RH_RF95_MODEM_STATUS_RX_ONGOING 0x04
191 #define RH_RF95_MODEM_STATUS_SIGNAL_SYNCHRONIZED 0x02
192 #define RH_RF95_MODEM_STATUS_SIGNAL_DETECTED 0x01
193 
194 // RH_RF95_REG_1C_HOP_CHANNEL 0x1c
195 #define RH_RF95_PLL_TIMEOUT 0x80
196 #define RH_RF95_RX_PAYLOAD_CRC_IS_ON 0x40
197 #define RH_RF95_FHSS_PRESENT_CHANNEL 0x3f
198 
199 // RH_RF95_REG_1D_MODEM_CONFIG1 0x1d
200 #define RH_RF95_BW 0xf0
201 
202 #define RH_RF95_BW_7_8KHZ 0x00
203 #define RH_RF95_BW_10_4KHZ 0x10
204 #define RH_RF95_BW_15_6KHZ 0x20
205 #define RH_RF95_BW_20_8KHZ 0x30
206 #define RH_RF95_BW_31_25KHZ 0x40
207 #define RH_RF95_BW_41_7KHZ 0x50
208 #define RH_RF95_BW_62_5KHZ 0x60
209 #define RH_RF95_BW_125KHZ 0x70
210 #define RH_RF95_BW_250KHZ 0x80
211 #define RH_RF95_BW_500KHZ 0x90
212 #define RH_RF95_CODING_RATE 0x0e
213 #define RH_RF95_CODING_RATE_4_5 0x02
214 #define RH_RF95_CODING_RATE_4_6 0x04
215 #define RH_RF95_CODING_RATE_4_7 0x06
216 #define RH_RF95_CODING_RATE_4_8 0x08
217 #define RH_RF95_IMPLICIT_HEADER_MODE_ON 0x01
218 
219 // RH_RF95_REG_1E_MODEM_CONFIG2 0x1e
220 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR 0xf0
221 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_64CPS 0x60
222 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_128CPS 0x70
223 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_256CPS 0x80
224 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_512CPS 0x90
225 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_1024CPS 0xa0
226 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_2048CPS 0xb0
227 #define RH_RF95_SPREADING_FACTOR_4096CPS 0xc0
228 #define RH_RF95_TX_CONTINUOUS_MOE 0x08
229 
230 #define RH_RF95_PAYLOAD_CRC_ON 0x04
231 #define RH_RF95_SYM_TIMEOUT_MSB 0x03
232 
233 // RH_RF95_REG_4B_TCXO 0x4b
234 #define RH_RF95_TCXO_TCXO_INPUT_ON 0x10
235 
236 // RH_RF95_REG_4D_PA_DAC 0x4d
237 #define RH_RF95_PA_DAC_DISABLE 0x04
238 #define RH_RF95_PA_DAC_ENABLE 0x07
239 
240 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
241 /// \class RH_RF95 RH_RF95.h <RH_RF95.h>
242 /// \brief Driver to send and receive unaddressed, unreliable datagrams via a LoRa
243 /// capable radio transceiver.
244 ///
245 /// For Semtech SX1276/77/78/79 and HopeRF RF95/96/97/98 and other similar LoRa capable radios.
246 /// Based on http://www.hoperf.com/upload/rf/RFM95_96_97_98W.pdf
247 /// and http://www.hoperf.cn/upload/rfchip/RF96_97_98.pdf
248 /// and http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/LoraDesignGuide_STD.pdf
249 /// and http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/sx1276.pdf
250 /// and http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/sx1276_77_78_79.pdf
251 /// FSK/GFSK/OOK modes are not (yet) supported.
252 ///
253 /// Works with
254 /// - the excellent MiniWirelessLoRa from Anarduino http://www.anarduino.com/miniwireless
255 /// - The excellent Modtronix inAir4 http://modtronix.com/inair4.html
256 /// and inAir9 modules http://modtronix.com/inair9.html.
257 /// - the excellent Rocket Scream Mini Ultra Pro with the RFM95W
258 /// http://www.rocketscream.com/blog/product/mini-ultra-pro-with-radio/
259 /// - Lora1276 module from NiceRF http://www.nicerf.com/product_view.aspx?id=99
260 /// - Adafruit Feather M0 with RFM95
261 ///
262 /// \par Overview
263 ///
264 /// This class provides basic functions for sending and receiving unaddressed,
265 /// unreliable datagrams of arbitrary length to 251 octets per packet.
266 ///
267 /// Manager classes may use this class to implement reliable, addressed datagrams and streams,
268 /// mesh routers, repeaters, translators etc.
269 ///
270 /// Naturally, for any 2 radios to communicate that must be configured to use the same frequency and
271 /// modulation scheme.
272 ///
273 /// This Driver provides an object-oriented interface for sending and receiving data messages with Hope-RF
274 /// RFM95/96/97/98(W), Semtech SX1276/77/78/79 and compatible radio modules in LoRa mode.
275 ///
276 /// The Hope-RF (http://www.hoperf.com) RFM95/96/97/98(W) and Semtech SX1276/77/78/79 is a low-cost ISM transceiver
277 /// chip. It supports FSK, GFSK, OOK over a wide range of frequencies and
278 /// programmable data rates, and it also supports the proprietary LoRA (Long Range) mode, which
279 /// is the only mode supported in this RadioHead driver.
280 ///
281 /// This Driver provides functions for sending and receiving messages of up
282 /// to 251 octets on any frequency supported by the radio, in a range of
283 /// predefined Bandwidths, Spreading Factors and Coding Rates. Frequency can be set with
284 /// 61Hz precision to any frequency from 240.0MHz to 960.0MHz. Caution: most modules only support a more limited
285 /// range of frequencies due to antenna tuning.
286 ///
287 /// Up to 2 modules can be connected to an Arduino (3 on a Mega),
288 /// permitting the construction of translators and frequency changers, etc.
289 ///
290 /// Support for other features such as transmitter power control etc is
291 /// also provided.
292 ///
293 /// Tested on MinWirelessLoRa with arduino-1.0.5
294 /// on OpenSuSE 13.1.
295 /// Also tested with Teensy3.1, Modtronix inAir4 and Arduino 1.6.5 on OpenSuSE 13.1
296 ///
297 /// \par Packet Format
298 ///
299 /// All messages sent and received by this RH_RF95 Driver conform to this packet format:
300 ///
301 /// - LoRa mode:
302 /// - 8 symbol PREAMBLE
303 /// - Explicit header with header CRC (handled internally by the radio)
304 /// - 4 octets HEADER: (TO, FROM, ID, FLAGS)
305 /// - 0 to 251 octets DATA
306 /// - CRC (handled internally by the radio)
307 ///
308 /// \par Connecting RFM95/96/97/98 and Semtech SX1276/77/78/79 to Arduino
309 ///
310 /// We tested with Anarduino MiniWirelessLoRA, which is an Arduino Duemilanove compatible with a RFM96W
311 /// module on-board. Therefore it needs no connections other than the USB
312 /// programming connection and an antenna to make it work.
313 ///
314 /// If you have a bare RFM95/96/97/98 that you want to connect to an Arduino, you
315 /// might use these connections (untested): CAUTION: you must use a 3.3V type
316 /// Arduino, otherwise you will also need voltage level shifters between the
317 /// Arduino and the RFM95. CAUTION, you must also ensure you connect an
318 /// antenna.
319 ///
320 /// \code
321 /// Arduino RFM95/96/97/98
322 /// GND----------GND (ground in)
323 /// 3V3----------3.3V (3.3V in)
324 /// interrupt 0 pin D2-----------DIO0 (interrupt request out)
325 /// SS pin D10----------NSS (CS chip select in)
326 /// SCK pin D13----------SCK (SPI clock in)
327 /// MOSI pin D11----------MOSI (SPI Data in)
328 /// MISO pin D12----------MISO (SPI Data out)
329 /// \endcode
330 /// With these connections, you can then use the default constructor RH_RF95().
331 /// You can override the default settings for the SS pin and the interrupt in
332 /// the RH_RF95 constructor if you wish to connect the slave select SS to other
333 /// than the normal one for your Arduino (D10 for Diecimila, Uno etc and D53
334 /// for Mega) or the interrupt request to other than pin D2 (Caution,
335 /// different processors have different constraints as to the pins available
336 /// for interrupts).
337 ///
338 /// You can connect a Modtronix inAir4 or inAir9 directly to a 3.3V part such as a Teensy 3.1 like
339 /// this (tested).
340 /// \code
341 /// Teensy inAir4 inAir9
342 /// GND----------0V (ground in)
343 /// 3V3----------3.3V (3.3V in)
344 /// interrupt 0 pin D2-----------D0 (interrupt request out)
345 /// SS pin D10----------CS (CS chip select in)
346 /// SCK pin D13----------CK (SPI clock in)
347 /// MOSI pin D11----------SI (SPI Data in)
348 /// MISO pin D12----------SO (SPI Data out)
349 /// \endcode
350 /// With these connections, you can then use the default constructor RH_RF95().
351 /// you must also set the transmitter power with useRFO:
352 /// driver.setTxPower(13, true);
353 ///
354 /// Note that if you are using Modtronix inAir4 or inAir9,or any other module which uses the
355 /// transmitter RFO pins and not the PA_BOOST pins
356 /// that you must configure the power transmitter power for -1 to 14 dBm and with useRFO true.
357 /// Failure to do that will result in extremely low transmit powers.
358 ///
359 /// If you have an Arduino M0 Pro from arduino.org,
360 /// you should note that you cannot use Pin 2 for the interrupt line
361 /// (Pin 2 is for the NMI only). The same comments apply to Pin 4 on Arduino Zero from arduino.cc.
362 /// Instead you can use any other pin (we use Pin 3) and initialise RH_RF69 like this:
363 /// \code
364 /// // Slave Select is pin 10, interrupt is Pin 3
365 /// RH_RF95 driver(10, 3);
366 /// \endcode
367 ///
368 /// If you have a Rocket Scream Mini Ultra Pro with the RFM95W:
369 /// - Ensure you have Arduino SAMD board support 1.6.5 or later in Arduino IDE 1.6.8 or later.
370 /// - The radio SS is hardwired to pin D5 and the DIO0 interrupt to pin D2,
371 /// so you need to initialise the radio like this:
372 /// \code
373 /// RH_RF95 driver(5, 2);
374 /// \endcode
375 /// - The name of the serial port on that board is 'SerialUSB', not 'Serial', so this may be helpful at the top of our
376 /// sample sketches:
377 /// \code
378 /// #define Serial SerialUSB
379 /// \endcode
380 /// - You also need this in setup before radio initialisation
381 /// \code
382 /// // Ensure serial flash is not interfering with radio communication on SPI bus
383 /// pinMode(4, OUTPUT);
384 /// digitalWrite(4, HIGH);
385 /// \endcode
386 /// - and if you have a 915MHz part, you need this after driver/manager intitalisation:
387 /// \code
388 /// rf95.setFrequency(915.0);
389 /// \endcode
390 /// which adds up to modifying sample sketches something like:
391 /// \code
392 /// #include <SPI.h>
393 /// #include <RH_RF95.h>
394 /// RH_RF95 rf95(5, 2); // Rocket Scream Mini Ultra Pro with the RFM95W
395 /// #define Serial SerialUSB
396 ///
397 /// void setup()
398 /// {
399 /// // Ensure serial flash is not interfering with radio communication on SPI bus
400 /// pinMode(4, OUTPUT);
401 /// digitalWrite(4, HIGH);
402 ///
403 /// Serial.begin(9600);
404 /// while (!Serial) ; // Wait for serial port to be available
405 /// if (!rf95.init())
406 /// Serial.println("init failed");
407 /// rf95.setFrequency(915.0);
408 /// }
409 /// ...
410 /// \endcode
411 ///
412 /// For Adafruit Feather M0 with RFM95, construct the driver like this:
413 /// \code
414 /// RH_RF95 rf95(8, 3);
415 /// \endcode
416 ///
417 /// It is possible to have 2 or more radios connected to one Arduino, provided
418 /// each radio has its own SS and interrupt line (SCK, SDI and SDO are common
419 /// to all radios)
420 ///
421 /// Caution: on some Arduinos such as the Mega 2560, if you set the slave
422 /// select pin to be other than the usual SS pin (D53 on Mega 2560), you may
423 /// need to set the usual SS pin to be an output to force the Arduino into SPI
424 /// master mode.
425 ///
426 /// Caution: Power supply requirements of the RFM module may be relevant in some circumstances:
427 /// RFM95/96/97/98 modules are capable of pulling 120mA+ at full power, where Arduino's 3.3V line can
428 /// give 50mA. You may need to make provision for alternate power supply for
429 /// the RFM module, especially if you wish to use full transmit power, and/or you have
430 /// other shields demanding power. Inadequate power for the RFM is likely to cause symptoms such as:
431 /// - reset's/bootups terminate with "init failed" messages
432 /// - random termination of communication after 5-30 packets sent/received
433 /// - "fake ok" state, where initialization passes fluently, but communication doesn't happen
434 /// - shields hang Arduino boards, especially during the flashing
435 ///
436 /// \par Interrupts
437 ///
438 /// The RH_RF95 driver uses interrupts to react to events in the RFM module,
439 /// such as the reception of a new packet, or the completion of transmission
440 /// of a packet. The RH_RF95 driver interrupt service routine reads status from
441 /// and writes data to the the RFM module via the SPI interface. It is very
442 /// important therefore, that if you are using the RH_RF95 driver with another
443 /// SPI based deviced, that you disable interrupts while you transfer data to
444 /// and from that other device. Use cli() to disable interrupts and sei() to
445 /// reenable them.
446 ///
447 /// \par Memory
448 ///
449 /// The RH_RF95 driver requires non-trivial amounts of memory. The sample
450 /// programs all compile to about 8kbytes each, which will fit in the
451 /// flash proram memory of most Arduinos. However, the RAM requirements are
452 /// more critical. Therefore, you should be vary sparing with RAM use in
453 /// programs that use the RH_RF95 driver.
454 ///
455 /// It is often hard to accurately identify when you are hitting RAM limits on Arduino.
456 /// The symptoms can include:
457 /// - Mysterious crashes and restarts
458 /// - Changes in behaviour when seemingly unrelated changes are made (such as adding print() statements)
459 /// - Hanging
460 /// - Output from Serial.print() not appearing
461 ///
462 /// \par Range
463 ///
464 /// We have made some simple range tests under the following conditions:
465 /// - rf95_client base station connected to a VHF discone antenna at 8m height above ground
466 /// - rf95_server mobile connected to 17.3cm 1/4 wavelength antenna at 1m height, no ground plane.
467 /// - Both configured for 13dBm, 434MHz, Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/8, Sf = 4096chips/symbol, CRC on. Slow+long range
468 /// - Minimum reported RSSI seen for successful comms was about -91
469 /// - Range over flat ground through heavy trees and vegetation approx 2km.
470 /// - At 20dBm (100mW) otherwise identical conditions approx 3km.
471 /// - At 20dBm, along salt water flat sandy beach, 3.2km.
472 ///
473 /// It should be noted that at this data rate, a 12 octet message takes 2 seconds to transmit.
474 ///
475 /// At 20dBm (100mW) with Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/5, Sf = 128chips/symbol, CRC on.
476 /// (Default medium range) in the conditions described above.
477 /// - Range over flat ground through heavy trees and vegetation approx 2km.
478 ///
479 /// Caution: the performance of this radio, especially with narrow bandwidths is strongly dependent on the
480 /// accuracy and stability of the chip clock. HopeRF and Semtech do not appear to
481 /// recommend bandwidths of less than 62.5 kHz
482 /// unless you have the optional Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) installed and
483 /// enabled on your radio module. See the refernece manual for more data.
484 /// Also https://lowpowerlab.com/forum/rf-range-antennas-rfm69-library/lora-library-experiences-range/15/
485 /// and http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/an120014-xo-guidance-lora-modulation.pdf
486 ///
487 /// \par Transmitter Power
488 ///
489 /// You can control the transmitter power on the RF transceiver
490 /// with the RH_RF95::setTxPower() function. The argument can be any of
491 /// +5 to +23 (for modules that use PA_BOOST)
492 /// -1 to +14 (for modules that use RFO transmitter pin)
493 /// The default is 13. Eg:
494 /// \code
495 /// driver.setTxPower(10); // use PA_BOOST transmitter pin
496 /// driver.setTxPower(10, true); // use PA_RFO pin transmitter pin
497 /// \endcode
498 ///
499 /// We have made some actual power measurements against
500 /// programmed power for Anarduino MiniWirelessLoRa (which has RFM96W-433Mhz installed)
501 /// - MiniWirelessLoRa RFM96W-433Mhz, USB power
502 /// - 30cm RG316 soldered direct to RFM96W module ANT and GND
503 /// - SMA connector
504 /// - 12db attenuator
505 /// - SMA connector
506 /// - MiniKits AD8307 HF/VHF Power Head (calibrated against Rohde&Schwartz 806.2020 test set)
507 /// - Tektronix TDS220 scope to measure the Vout from power head
508 /// \code
509 /// Program power Measured Power
510 /// dBm dBm
511 /// 5 5
512 /// 7 7
513 /// 9 8
514 /// 11 11
515 /// 13 13
516 /// 15 15
517 /// 17 16
518 /// 19 18
519 /// 20 20
520 /// 21 21
521 /// 22 22
522 /// 23 23
523 /// \endcode
524 ///
525 /// We have also measured the actual power output from a Modtronix inAir4 http://modtronix.com/inair4.html
526 /// connected to a Teensy 3.1:
527 /// Teensy 3.1 this is a 3.3V part, connected directly to:
528 /// Modtronix inAir4 with SMA antenna connector, connected as above:
529 /// 10cm SMA-SMA cable
530 /// - MiniKits AD8307 HF/VHF Power Head (calibrated against Rohde&Schwartz 806.2020 test set)
531 /// - Tektronix TDS220 scope to measure the Vout from power head
532 /// \code
533 /// Program power Measured Power
534 /// dBm dBm
535 /// -1 0
536 /// 1 2
537 /// 3 4
538 /// 5 7
539 /// 7 10
540 /// 9 13
541 /// 11 14.2
542 /// 13 15
543 /// 14 16
544 /// \endcode
545 /// (Caution: we dont claim laboratory accuracy for these power measurements)
546 /// You would not expect to get anywhere near these powers to air with a simple 1/4 wavelength wire antenna.
547 class RH_RF95 : public RHSPIDriver
548 {
549 public:
550  /// \brief Defines register values for a set of modem configuration registers
551  ///
552  /// Defines register values for a set of modem configuration registers
553  /// that can be passed to setModemRegisters() if none of the choices in
554  /// ModemConfigChoice suit your need setModemRegisters() writes the
555  /// register values from this structure to the appropriate registers
556  /// to set the desired spreading factor, coding rate and bandwidth
557  typedef struct
558  {
559  uint8_t reg_1d; ///< Value for register RH_RF95_REG_1D_MODEM_CONFIG1
560  uint8_t reg_1e; ///< Value for register RH_RF95_REG_1E_MODEM_CONFIG2
561  uint8_t reg_26; ///< Value for register RH_RF95_REG_26_MODEM_CONFIG3
562  } ModemConfig;
563 
564  /// Choices for setModemConfig() for a selected subset of common
565  /// data rates. If you need another configuration,
566  /// determine the necessary settings and call setModemRegisters() with your
567  /// desired settings. It might be helpful to use the LoRa calculator mentioned in
568  /// http://www.semtech.com/images/datasheet/LoraDesignGuide_STD.pdf
569  /// These are indexes into MODEM_CONFIG_TABLE. We strongly recommend you use these symbolic
570  /// definitions and not their integer equivalents: its possible that new values will be
571  /// introduced in later versions (though we will try to avoid it).
572  /// Caution: if you are using slow packet rates and long packets with RHReliableDatagram or subclasses
573  /// you may need to change the RHReliableDatagram timeout for reliable operations.
574  /// Caution: for some slow rates nad with ReliableDatagrams youi may need to increase the reply timeout
575  /// with manager.setTimeout() to
576  /// deal with the long transmission times.
577  typedef enum
578  {
579  Bw125Cr45Sf128 = 0, ///< Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/5, Sf = 128chips/symbol, CRC on. Default medium range
580  Bw500Cr45Sf128, ///< Bw = 500 kHz, Cr = 4/5, Sf = 128chips/symbol, CRC on. Fast+short range
581  Bw31_25Cr48Sf512, ///< Bw = 31.25 kHz, Cr = 4/8, Sf = 512chips/symbol, CRC on. Slow+long range
582  Bw125Cr48Sf4096, ///< Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/8, Sf = 4096chips/symbol, CRC on. Slow+long range
584 
585  /// Constructor. You can have multiple instances, but each instance must have its own
586  /// interrupt and slave select pin. After constructing, you must call init() to initialise the interface
587  /// and the radio module. A maximum of 3 instances can co-exist on one processor, provided there are sufficient
588  /// distinct interrupt lines, one for each instance.
589  /// \param[in] slaveSelectPin the Arduino pin number of the output to use to select the RH_RF22 before
590  /// accessing it. Defaults to the normal SS pin for your Arduino (D10 for Diecimila, Uno etc, D53 for Mega, D10 for Maple)
591  /// \param[in] interruptPin The interrupt Pin number that is connected to the RFM DIO0 interrupt line.
592  /// Defaults to pin 2, as required by Anarduino MinWirelessLoRa module.
593  /// Caution: You must specify an interrupt capable pin.
594  /// On many Arduino boards, there are limitations as to which pins may be used as interrupts.
595  /// On Leonardo pins 0, 1, 2 or 3. On Mega2560 pins 2, 3, 18, 19, 20, 21. On Due and Teensy, any digital pin.
596  /// On Arduino Zero from arduino.cc, any digital pin other than 4.
597  /// On Arduino M0 Pro from arduino.org, any digital pin other than 2.
598  /// On other Arduinos pins 2 or 3.
599  /// See http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/attachInterrupt for more details.
600  /// On Chipkit Uno32, pins 38, 2, 7, 8, 35.
601  /// On other boards, any digital pin may be used.
602  /// \param[in] spi Pointer to the SPI interface object to use.
603  /// Defaults to the standard Arduino hardware SPI interface
604  RH_RF95(uint8_t slaveSelectPin = SS, uint8_t interruptPin = 2, RHGenericSPI& spi = hardware_spi);
605 
606  /// Initialise the Driver transport hardware and software.
607  /// Make sure the Driver is properly configured before calling init().
608  /// \return true if initialisation succeeded.
609  virtual bool init();
610 
611  /// Prints the value of all chip registers
612  /// to the Serial device if RH_HAVE_SERIAL is defined for the current platform
613  /// For debugging purposes only.
614  /// \return true on success
615  bool printRegisters();
616 
617  /// Sets all the registered required to configure the data modem in the RF95/96/97/98, including the bandwidth,
618  /// spreading factor etc. You can use this to configure the modem with custom configurations if none of the
619  /// canned configurations in ModemConfigChoice suit you.
620  /// \param[in] config A ModemConfig structure containing values for the modem configuration registers.
621  void setModemRegisters(const ModemConfig* config);
622 
623  /// Select one of the predefined modem configurations. If you need a modem configuration not provided
624  /// here, use setModemRegisters() with your own ModemConfig.
625  /// Caution: the slowest protocols may require a radio module with TCXO temperature controlled oscillator
626  /// for reliable operation.
627  /// \param[in] index The configuration choice.
628  /// \return true if index is a valid choice.
629  bool setModemConfig(ModemConfigChoice index);
630 
631  /// Tests whether a new message is available
632  /// from the Driver.
633  /// On most drivers, this will also put the Driver into RHModeRx mode until
634  /// a message is actually received by the transport, when it wil be returned to RHModeIdle.
635  /// This can be called multiple times in a timeout loop
636  /// \return true if a new, complete, error-free uncollected message is available to be retreived by recv()
637  virtual bool available();
638 
639  /// Turns the receiver on if it not already on.
640  /// If there is a valid message available, copy it to buf and return true
641  /// else return false.
642  /// If a message is copied, *len is set to the length (Caution, 0 length messages are permitted).
643  /// You should be sure to call this function frequently enough to not miss any messages
644  /// It is recommended that you call it in your main loop.
645  /// \param[in] buf Location to copy the received message
646  /// \param[in,out] len Pointer to available space in buf. Set to the actual number of octets copied.
647  /// \return true if a valid message was copied to buf
648  virtual bool recv(uint8_t* buf, uint8_t* len);
649 
650  /// Waits until any previous transmit packet is finished being transmitted with waitPacketSent().
651  /// Then optionally waits for Channel Activity Detection (CAD)
652  /// to show the channnel is clear (if the radio supports CAD) by calling waitCAD().
653  /// Then loads a message into the transmitter and starts the transmitter. Note that a message length
654  /// of 0 is permitted.
655  /// \param[in] data Array of data to be sent
656  /// \param[in] len Number of bytes of data to send
657  /// specify the maximum time in ms to wait. If 0 (the default) do not wait for CAD before transmitting.
658  /// \return true if the message length was valid and it was correctly queued for transmit. Return false
659  /// if CAD was requested and the CAD timeout timed out before clear channel was detected.
660  virtual bool send(const uint8_t* data, uint8_t len);
661 
662  /// Sets the length of the preamble
663  /// in bytes.
664  /// Caution: this should be set to the same
665  /// value on all nodes in your network. Default is 8.
666  /// Sets the message preamble length in RH_RF95_REG_??_PREAMBLE_?SB
667  /// \param[in] bytes Preamble length in bytes.
668  void setPreambleLength(uint16_t bytes);
669 
670  /// Returns the maximum message length
671  /// available in this Driver.
672  /// \return The maximum legal message length
673  virtual uint8_t maxMessageLength();
674 
675  /// Sets the transmitter and receiver
676  /// centre frequency.
677  /// \param[in] centre Frequency in MHz. 137.0 to 1020.0. Caution: RFM95/96/97/98 comes in several
678  /// different frequency ranges, and setting a frequency outside that range of your radio will probably not work
679  /// \return true if the selected frquency centre is within range
680  bool setFrequency(float centre);
681 
682  /// If current mode is Rx or Tx changes it to Idle. If the transmitter or receiver is running,
683  /// disables them.
684  void setModeIdle();
685 
686  /// If current mode is Tx or Idle, changes it to Rx.
687  /// Starts the receiver in the RF95/96/97/98.
688  void setModeRx();
689 
690  /// If current mode is Rx or Idle, changes it to Rx. F
691  /// Starts the transmitter in the RF95/96/97/98.
692  void setModeTx();
693 
694  /// Sets the transmitter power output level, and configures the transmitter pin.
695  /// Be a good neighbour and set the lowest power level you need.
696  /// Some SX1276/77/78/79 and compatible modules (such as RFM95/96/97/98)
697  /// use the PA_BOOST transmitter pin for high power output (and optionally the PA_DAC)
698  /// while some (such as the Modtronix inAir4 and inAir9)
699  /// use the RFO transmitter pin for lower power but higher efficiency.
700  /// You must set the appropriate power level and useRFO argument for your module.
701  /// Check with your module manufacturer which transmtter pin is used on your module
702  /// to ensure you are setting useRFO correctly.
703  /// Failure to do so will result in very low
704  /// transmitter power output.
705  /// Caution: legal power limits may apply in certain countries.
706  /// After init(), the power will be set to 13dBm, with useRFO false (ie PA_BOOST enabled).
707  /// \param[in] power Transmitter power level in dBm. For RFM95/96/97/98 LORA with useRFO false,
708  /// valid values are from +5 to +23.
709  /// For Modtronix inAir4 and inAir9 with useRFO true (ie RFO pins in use),
710  /// valid values are from -1 to 14.
711  /// \param[in] useRFO If true, enables the use of the RFO transmitter pins instead of
712  /// the PA_BOOST pin (false). Choose the correct setting for your module.
713  void setTxPower(int8_t power, bool useRFO = false);
714 
715  /// Sets the radio into low-power sleep mode.
716  /// If successful, the transport will stay in sleep mode until woken by
717  /// changing mode it idle, transmit or receive (eg by calling send(), recv(), available() etc)
718  /// Caution: there is a time penalty as the radio takes a finite time to wake from sleep mode.
719  /// \return true if sleep mode was successfully entered.
720  virtual bool sleep();
721 
722  // Bent G Christensen (bentor@gmail.com), 08/15/2016
723  /// Use the radio's Channel Activity Detect (CAD) function to detect channel activity.
724  /// Sets the RF95 radio into CAD mode and waits until CAD detection is complete.
725  /// To be used in a listen-before-talk mechanism (Collision Avoidance)
726  /// with a reasonable time backoff algorithm.
727  /// This is called automatically by waitCAD().
728  /// \return true if channel is in use.
729  virtual bool isChannelActive();
730 
731  /// Enable TCXO mode
732  /// Call this immediately after init(), to force your radio to use an external
733  /// frequency source, such as a Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO), if available.
734  /// See the comments in the main documentation about the sensitivity of this radio to
735  /// clock frequency especially when using narrow bandwidths.
736  /// Leaves the module in sleep mode.
737  /// Caution, this function has not been tested by us.
738  /// Caution, the TCXO model radios are not low power when in sleep (consuming
739  /// about ~600 uA, reported by Phang Moh Lim.<br>
740  void enableTCXO();
741 
742  /// Returns the last measured frequency error.
743  /// The LoRa receiver estimates the frequency offset between the receiver centre frequency
744  /// and that of the received LoRa signal. This function returns the estimates offset (in Hz)
745  /// of the last received message. Caution: this measurement is not absolute, but is measured
746  /// relative to the local receiver's oscillator.
747  /// Apparent errors may be due to the transmitter, the receiver or both.
748  /// \return The estimated centre frequency offset in Hz of the last received message.
749  /// If the modem bandwidth selector in
750  /// register RH_RF95_REG_1D_MODEM_CONFIG1 is invalid, returns 0.
751  int frequencyError();
752 
753  /// Returns the Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the last received message, as measured
754  /// by the receiver.
755  /// \return SNR of the last received message in dB
756  int lastSNR();
757 
758 protected:
759  /// This is a low level function to handle the interrupts for one instance of RH_RF95.
760  /// Called automatically by isr*()
761  /// Should not need to be called by user code.
762  void handleInterrupt();
763 
764  /// Examine the revceive buffer to determine whether the message is for this node
765  void validateRxBuf();
766 
767  /// Clear our local receive buffer
768  void clearRxBuf();
769 
770 private:
771  /// Low level interrupt service routine for device connected to interrupt 0
772  static void isr0();
773 
774  /// Low level interrupt service routine for device connected to interrupt 1
775  static void isr1();
776 
777  /// Low level interrupt service routine for device connected to interrupt 1
778  static void isr2();
779 
780  /// Array of instances connected to interrupts 0 and 1
781  static RH_RF95* _deviceForInterrupt[];
782 
783  /// Index of next interrupt number to use in _deviceForInterrupt
784  static uint8_t _interruptCount;
785 
786  /// The configured interrupt pin connected to this instance
787  uint8_t _interruptPin;
788 
789  /// The index into _deviceForInterrupt[] for this device (if an interrupt is already allocated)
790  /// else 0xff
791  uint8_t _myInterruptIndex;
792 
793  /// Number of octets in the buffer
794  volatile uint8_t _bufLen;
795 
796  /// The receiver/transmitter buffer
797  uint8_t _buf[RH_RF95_MAX_PAYLOAD_LEN];
798 
799  /// True when there is a valid message in the buffer
800  volatile bool _rxBufValid;
801 
802  // True if we are using the HF port (779.0 MHz and above)
803  bool _usingHFport;
804 
805  // Last measured SNR, dB
806  int8_t _lastSNR;
807 };
808 
809 /// @example rf95_client.pde
810 /// @example rf95_server.pde
811 /// @example rf95_encrypted_client.pde
812 /// @example rf95_encrypted_server.pde
813 /// @example rf95_reliable_datagram_client.pde
814 /// @example rf95_reliable_datagram_server.pde
815 
816 #endif
817 
void handleInterrupt()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:121
virtual bool recv(uint8_t *buf, uint8_t *len)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:233
virtual bool available()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:217
Base class for SPI interfaces.
Definition: RHGenericSPI.h:30
void validateRxBuf()
Examine the revceive buffer to determine whether the message is for this node.
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:199
uint8_t reg_1d
Value for register RH_RF95_REG_1D_MODEM_CONFIG1.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:559
int frequencyError()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:446
int lastSNR()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:473
ModemConfigChoice
Definition: RH_RF95.h:577
RH_RF95(uint8_t slaveSelectPin=SS, uint8_t interruptPin=2, RHGenericSPI &spi=hardware_spi)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:26
void setModeIdle()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:310
bool setFrequency(float centre)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:298
Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/5, Sf = 128chips/symbol, CRC on. Default medium range.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:579
void setPreambleLength(uint16_t bytes)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:413
virtual bool init()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:35
Defines register values for a set of modem configuration registers.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:557
Driver to send and receive unaddressed, unreliable datagrams via a LoRa capable radio transceiver...
Definition: RH_RF95.h:547
void clearRxBuf()
Clear our local receive buffer.
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:225
virtual bool send(const uint8_t *data, uint8_t len)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:250
virtual bool isChannelActive()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:419
Bw = 31.25 kHz, Cr = 4/8, Sf = 512chips/symbol, CRC on. Slow+long range.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:581
Bw = 125 kHz, Cr = 4/8, Sf = 4096chips/symbol, CRC on. Slow+long range.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:582
void enableTCXO()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:435
uint8_t reg_26
Value for register RH_RF95_REG_26_MODEM_CONFIG3.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:561
void setModeTx()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:339
virtual uint8_t maxMessageLength()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:293
uint8_t reg_1e
Value for register RH_RF95_REG_1E_MODEM_CONFIG2.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:560
Bw = 500 kHz, Cr = 4/5, Sf = 128chips/symbol, CRC on. Fast+short range.
Definition: RH_RF95.h:580
void setModeRx()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:329
bool setModemConfig(ModemConfigChoice index)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:401
Base class for RadioHead drivers that use the SPI bus to communicate with its transport hardware...
Definition: RHSPIDriver.h:38
void setTxPower(int8_t power, bool useRFO=false)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:349
bool printRegisters()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:277
void setModemRegisters(const ModemConfig *config)
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:392
virtual bool sleep()
Definition: RH_RF95.cpp:319